Philips India, PricewaterhouseCoopers India, Tata Global Beverages, Tata Steel have their registered office and zonal headquarters in Kolkata. [33] Per the 1765 Treaty of Allahabad following the battle of Buxar, East India company was appointed imperial tax collector of the Mughal emperor in the province of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, while Mughal-appointed Nawabs continued to rule the province. This city is exceptionally good for its music, literature, movies, culture, and food. (2011) 4,486,679; urban agglom., 14,112,536. Kolkata has always promoted science and technology and the city has seen some of the most renowned scientists coming out of Kolkata. Kolkata has had to assimilate strong European influences and overcome the limitations of its colonial legacy in order to find its own unique identity. Kolkata is the birth place of fusion … Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Located at the center of the city, Terreti Market is a popular shopping destination. [79] Kolkata has been hit by several cyclones; these include systems occurring in 1737 and 1864 that killed thousands. The south suburban areas like Maheshtala, Budge Budge, Rajpur Sonarpur, Baruipur etc. The metropolitan city of Kolkata is not just well-known for its roshogollas, mishit dohi, trams, Howrah Bridge and Victoria memorial, but also for its inexpensive nature. [67]:65–66 Central Kolkata hosts the central business district. [257][258], All India Radio, the national state-owned radio broadcaster, airs several AM radio stations in the city. [134][135][136] The Kolkata Police, headed by a police commissioner, is overseen by the West Bengal Ministry of Home Affairs. It is called CITY OF JOY because Fun Food and Festivity all is found there. Kolkata was recently declared the safest city for women in India. Science City in Kolkata is Indian subcontinent’s largest science center. [179] The Kolkata Port Trust manages docks in Kolkata and Haldia. Its citizens exhibit a great joie de vivre that is demonstrated in a penchant for art and culture and a high level of intellectual vitality and political awareness. [148], State-owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, or BSNL, as well as private enterprises, among them Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Aircel, Tata DoCoMo, Tata Teleservices, Virgin Mobile, and MTS India, are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city. Kolkata - Kolkata - History: The name Kalikata was mentioned in the rent-roll of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reigned 1556–1605) and also in the Manasa-mangal of the Bengali poet Bipradas (1495). Kolkata has 10 local radio stations broadcasting on FM, including three from AIR. [133], As the seat of the Government of West Bengal, Kolkata is home to not only the offices of the local governing agencies, but also the West Bengal Legislative Assembly; the state secretariat, which is housed in the Writers' Building; and the Calcutta High Court. [36] Throughout the late 18th and 19th century, the city was a centre of the East India Company's opium trade. However, Calcutta had always been pronounced Kolkata by Bengali speakers. [39], By the 1850s, Calcutta had two areas: White Town, which was primarily British and centred on Chowringhee and Dalhousie Square; and Black Town, mainly Indian and centred on North Calcutta. The city’s former name, Calcutta, is an Anglicized version of the Bengali name Kalikata. The market is best known for the Chinese food it offers. [38] The same source says another 177,000 resided in the suburbs and neighbouring villages, making the entire population of greater Calcutta 406,700. Obelisks, skyscrapers, and carnivals are just a few of the fixtures that make these cities famous. [52], During the 1960s and 1970s, severe power shortages, strikes and a violent Marxist–Maoist movement by groups known as the Naxalites damaged much of the city's infrastructure, resulting in economic stagnation. Most of this falls from June to September, the period of the monsoon. The word Kolkata (Bengali: কলকাতা [ˈkolˌkata]) derives from Kôlikata (Bengali: কলিকাতা It houses many catholic Christians and Anglo-Indians and thus Christmas is also none-the-less grand. In 2020, part of the Second line was inaugurated to cover part of Salt Lake. [66] The east–west dimension of the city is comparatively narrow, stretching from the Hooghly River in the west to roughly the Eastern Metropolitan Bypass in the east—a span of 9–10 km (5.6–6.2 mi). [179][181] Ferry services connect Kolkata with its twin city of Howrah, located across the Hooghly River. The whole urban complex is held together by close socioeconomic ties. Now, we have Asia's largest planetarium known as Birla Planetarium and it also happens to be the second largest in the world. Updates? [124][95]:5 The unauthorised slums (devoid of basic services provided by the municipality) are occupied by squatters who started living on encroached lands—mainly along canals, railway lines and roads. [42], The partition of Bengal in 1905 along religious lines led to mass protests, making Calcutta a less hospitable place for the British. [198][199] Schools in Kolkata follow the "10+2+3" plan. Typically, each para has its own community club and on occasion, a playing field. Test your knowledge of big cities and their features. [125]:61, According to the Indian 2005 National Family Health Survey, only a small proportion of Kolkata households were covered under any health scheme or health insurance. India's state-owned television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides two free-to-air terrestrial channels,[259] while a mix of Bengali, Hindi, English, and other regional channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite services, or internet-based television. The U.S Consulate in Kolkata is the US Department of State's second-oldest Consulate and dates from 19 November 1792. However, the town is best known for local Bengali cuisine that one must indulge in, while here. In 1985, prime minister Rajiv Gandhi dubbed Kolkata a "dying city" in light of its socio-political woes. Earlier known as Calcutta, the city was founded in 1698 and served as the capital of British India till 1911 and then was shifted to Delhi. Bagh, formerly known as Dalhousie Square, and the Esplanade on its east; Strand Road is on its west. [280] The Calcutta Polo Club is considered the oldest extant polo club in the world. [20] Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by focusing on association football and other sports. Kolkata, earlier known as Calcutta, is the capital of West Bengal, a large state in the eastern part of India. The city is centred on the east bank of the Hugli (Hooghly) River, once the main channel of the Ganges (Ganga) River, about 96 miles (154 km) upstream from the head of the Bay of Bengal; there the port city developed as a point of transshipment from water to land and from river to sea. Kolkata is the capital city and the main hub center where the action takes place. Kolkata also houses the prestigious Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, which was started here in the year 2006. As of 2010[update], the Kolkata urban agglomeration is home to 14 universities run by the state government. It is considered the cultural capital of India because of a large number of writers, painters, dancers, and artists come from this city. [219][220] The city has a tradition of political graffiti depicting everything from outrageous slander to witty banter and limericks, caricatures and propaganda. Kolkata is known as Calcutta before which was later changed by the government. [9] The urban agglomeration had a population of 14,112,536 in 2011. Kolkata (/kɒlˈkɑːtə/[15] or /kɒlˈkʌtə/,[16] Bengali: [ˈkolˌkata] (listen), also rendered Calcutta /kælˈkʌtə/,[16] the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. [271] The Calcutta Cricket and Football Club is the second-oldest cricket club in the world.[272][273]. Two planned townships in the greater Kolkata region are Bidhannagar, also known as Salt Lake City and located north-east of the city; and Rajarhat, also called New Town and located east of Bidhannagar. Kolkata is known for its literary, artistic and revolutionary heritage; as the former capital of India, it was the birthplace of modern Indian literary and artistic thought. It is warm year-round, with average high temperatures ranging from about 80 °F (27 °C) in December and January to nearly 100 °F (38 °C) in April and May. The city is home to the oldest and the widest banyan tree in the world.Known as The Great Banyan Tree, you can catch a glimpse of this at Kolkata’s … [97][98][99][100][101] Companies such as ITC Limited, CESC Limited, Exide Industries, Emami, Eveready Industries India, Lux Industries, Rupa Company, Berger Paints, Birla Corporation and Britannia Industries are headquartered in the city. Kolkata has lower courts: the Court of Small Causes and the City Civil Court decide civil matters; the Sessions Court rules in criminal cases. Production systems and natural resources use in PU Kolkata, "BSNL may take two weeks to be back online", "In city's teeming heart, a place to gaze and graze", "Beautification project for Salt Lake, Sec V and New Town", "The 1737 Calcutta earthquake and cyclone evaluated", "Station: Calcutta (Alipur) Climatological Table 1981–2010", "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)", "Table 3 Monthly mean duration of Sun Shine (hours) at different locations in India", "Normals Data: Kolkata/Alipore - India Latitude: 22.53°N Longitude: 88.33°E Height: 6 (m)", "Station: Calcutta (Dumdum) Climatological Table 1981–2010", "Smog city chokes & grounds: foul air, moist and smoky", "Genesis and growth of the Calcutta Stock Exchange", "Understanding slums: case studies for the global report on human settlements 2003. [62] The shelf and hinge zones have many faults, among them some are active. Row upon row of stalls, sell chaat, bhelpuri, papri-chaat, jhal-muri, and other lip-smacking delicacies. Suburbs of Kolkata include Haora (Howrah) on the west bank, Baranagar to the north, South Dum Dum to the northeast, Behala to the south, and Garden Reach in the southwest. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was formerly credited as the founder of the city;[28] In response to a public petition,[29] the Calcutta High Court ruled in 2003 that the city does not have a founder. Park Street is best known for the Christmas and New Year parties where millions of city dwellers and tourists meet to celebrate the grandeur of the auspicious eves. As a tourist, there are soo many places to visit and explore. [58] The lack of capital and resources added to the depressed state of the city's economy and gave rise to an unwelcome sobriquet: the "dying city". The north suburban areas like Dum Dum, Baranagar, Belgharia, Sodepur, Khardaha, New Barrackpore, Madhyamgram, Barrackpore, Barasat etc. In 2001 the government of West Bengal officially changed the name of the city to Kolkata. This east–west line will connect Salt Lake with Howrah The 2 lines cover a distance of 33.02 km (21 mi). Kolkata Metropolitan Area, also known as the Calcutta Metropolitan Area and Greater Kolkata, is the urban agglomeration of the city of Kolkata in the Indian state of West Bengal.It is the third most populous metropolitan area in India after Delhi and Mumbai.The area is administered by the Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA). [224][225] Established in 1814 as the nation's oldest museum, the Indian Museum houses large collections that showcase Indian natural history and Indian art. Here’s all you wanted to know about Kolkata from its culture to food it offers and more. Once India's leading city, Kolkata experienced a steady economic decline in the decades following India's independence due to steep population increases and a rise in militant trade-unionism, which included frequent strikes that were backed by left-wing parties. [238] Large majority of publishers of the city is concentrated in and around College Street, "... a half-mile of bookshops and bookstalls spilling over onto the pavement", selling new and used books. [125]:23 Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for founding and working with the Missionaries of Charity in Kolkata—an organisation "whose primary task was to love and care for those persons nobody was prepared to look after". Author of. [274][275] Kolkata has the Indian Premier League franchise Kolkata Knight Riders; the Cricket Association of Bengal, which regulates cricket in West Bengal, is also based in the city. [255] Historically, Kolkata has been the centre of the Bengali little magazine movement. [244] Another new style, jibonmukhi gaan ("songs about life"), is based on realism. Kolkata is known for its literary, artistic and revolutionary heritage; as the former capital of India, it was the birthplace of modern Indian literary and artistic thought. It is a Metropolitan city and is quite populated. [132] The city has an apolitical titular post, that of the Sheriff of Kolkata, which presides over various city-related functions and conferences. [32] Facing frequent skirmishes with French forces, the British began to upgrade their fortifications in 1756. The coalescence of British and Indian culture resulted in the emergence of a new babu class of urbane Indians, whose members were often bureaucrats, professionals, newspaper readers, and Anglophiles; they usually belonged to upper-caste Hindu communities. Private institutions include the Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Educational and Research Institute and University of Engineering & Management (UEM). It contains B.B.D. The city was renamed, Kolkata in 2001. [76] The winter is mild and very comfortable weather pertains over the city throughout this season. [195][196] As of 2014, because of higher air pollution, the life expectancy of a person born in the city is four years fewer than in the suburbs. Also known as the City of Palaces, Kolkata was formerly known as Calcutta which is an Anglicized name of Kalikata. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Kolkata is widely known for its energy and vibrancy. The city was India’s capital during British rule. The presence of paras, which are neighbourhoods that possess a strong sense of community, is characteristic of the city. [117] Each ward elects a councillor to the KMC. It is home to the Bengal cricket team and the Kolkata Knight Riders. It is one of India’s largest cities and one of its major ports. Notable scholars who were born, worked or studied in Kolkata include physicists Satyendra Nath Bose, Meghnad Saha,[209] and Jagadish Chandra Bose;[210] chemist Prafulla Chandra Roy;[209] statisticians Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis and Anil Kumar Gain;[209] physician Upendranath Brahmachari;[209] educator Ashutosh Mukherjee;[211] and Nobel laureates Rabindranath Tagore,[212] C. V. Raman,[210] and Amartya Sen.[213]. [88][89] Severe air pollution in the city has caused a rise in pollution-related respiratory ailments, such as lung cancer. [159] Kolkata has five long-distance railway stations, located at Howrah (the largest railway complex in India), Sealdah, Chitpur, Shalimar and Santragachi, which connect Kolkata by rail to most cities in West Bengal and to other major cities in India. Area city, 40 square miles (104 square km); urban agglom., 533 square miles (1,380 square km). [93] The city's fortunes improved after the Indian economy was liberalised in the 1990s and changes in economic policy were enacted by the West Bengal state government. Kolkata is located atop the western part of the hinge zone which is about 25 km (16 mi) wide at a depth of about 45,000 m (148,000 ft) below the surface. [154] In these months often incessant rain for days brings life to a stall for the city dwellers. [241] The art college was the birthplace of the Bengal school of art that arose as an avant garde and nationalist movement reacting against the prevalent academic art styles in the early 20th century. North Kolkata is the oldest part of the city. Residents engage in addas, or leisurel… [265][266] Calcutta Football League, which was started in 1898, is the oldest football league in Asia. [31]:3 The number of Armenians, Greeks, Jews and other foreign-origin groups declined during the 20th century. Kolkata is home to West Bengal's film industry Tollywood, and cultural institutions, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Located on the eastern bank of the Hooghly River, the city is approximately 80 kilometres (50 mi) west of the border with Bangladesh. Dance accompanied by Rabindra Sangeet, a music genre started by Rabindranath Tagore, Sandesh, a typical Bengali sweet made from chhena, A murti, or representation, of the goddess Durga shown during the Durga Puja festival, Kolkata Gate, also known as Biswa Bangla Gate, The first newspaper in India, the Bengal Gazette started publishing from the city in 1780. Kolkata has been known to start the culture of eating out among Indians. 4,486,679;[105] its population density was 24,252/km2 (62,810/sq mi). [228]:99[231] Chitpur locality of the city houses multiple production companies of jatra, a tradition of folk drama popular in rural Bengal. The Calcutta High Court is the oldest High Court in India. [127], Kolkata's administrative agencies have areas of jurisdiction that do not coincide. [106] The ratio is depressed by the influx of working males from surrounding rural areas, from the rest of West Bengal; these men commonly leave their families behind. [182][183], As of 2011[update], the health care system in Kolkata consists of 48 government hospitals, mostly under the Department of Health & Family Welfare, Government of West Bengal, and 366 private medical establishments;[184] these establishments provide the city with 27,687 hospital beds. [255] As the largest trading centre in East India, Kolkata has several high-circulation financial dailies, including The Economic Times, The Financial Express, Business Line and Business Standard. [160] The city serves as the headquarters of three railway Zone out of Eighteen of the Indian Railways regional divisions—the Kolkata Metro Railways, Eastern Railway and the South-Eastern Railway. No longer identified with slums, destitution, and the inspiring work of Mother Teresa, the capital city of West Bengal is widely referred to as the "Cultural Capital of India" and "City of Joy". What is Kolkata famous for? 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[204] An Institute of National Importance, BESU was converted to India's first IIEST. [130] The Kolkata Municipal Corporation was ranked 1st out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. Kolkata is one of the first cities in India where the tram line was introduced and the only city … Kolkata was officially called Calcutta until 2001. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. [174] The Kolkata Metro has somewhat eased traffic congestion, as has the addition of new roads and flyovers. [127] As Kolkata's apex body, the corporation discharges its functions through the mayor-in-council, which comprises a mayor, a deputy mayor, and ten other elected members of the KMC. Indian subcontinent ’ s famous food: the city 255 ] Historically, Kolkata is located over decades! And carrom kolkata is known as city of are regularly organised on an inter-locality or inter-club basis various preparations ilish. 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