Philips India, PricewaterhouseCoopers India, Tata Global Beverages, Tata Steel have their registered office and zonal headquarters in Kolkata.  Per the 1765 Treaty of Allahabad following the battle of Buxar, East India company was appointed imperial tax collector of the Mughal emperor in the province of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, while Mughal-appointed Nawabs continued to rule the province. This city is exceptionally good for its music, literature, movies, culture, and food. (2011) 4,486,679; urban agglom., 14,112,536. Kolkata has always promoted science and technology and the city has seen some of the most renowned scientists coming out of Kolkata. Kolkata has had to assimilate strong European influences and overcome the limitations of its colonial legacy in order to find its own unique identity. Kolkata is the birth place of fusion … Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Located at the center of the city, Terreti Market is a popular shopping destination.  Kolkata has been hit by several cyclones; these include systems occurring in 1737 and 1864 that killed thousands. The south suburban areas like Maheshtala, Budge Budge, Rajpur Sonarpur, Baruipur etc. The metropolitan city of Kolkata is not just well-known for its roshogollas, mishit dohi, trams, Howrah Bridge and Victoria memorial, but also for its inexpensive nature. :65–66 Central Kolkata hosts the central business district. , All India Radio, the national state-owned radio broadcaster, airs several AM radio stations in the city.  The Kolkata Police, headed by a police commissioner, is overseen by the West Bengal Ministry of Home Affairs. It is called CITY OF JOY because Fun Food and Festivity all is found there. Kolkata was recently declared the safest city for women in India. Science City in Kolkata is Indian subcontinent’s largest science center.  The Kolkata Port Trust manages docks in Kolkata and Haldia. Its citizens exhibit a great joie de vivre that is demonstrated in a penchant for art and culture and a high level of intellectual vitality and political awareness. , State-owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, or BSNL, as well as private enterprises, among them Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Aircel, Tata DoCoMo, Tata Teleservices, Virgin Mobile, and MTS India, are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city. Kolkata - Kolkata - History: The name Kalikata was mentioned in the rent-roll of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reigned 1556–1605) and also in the Manasa-mangal of the Bengali poet Bipradas (1495). Kolkata has 10 local radio stations broadcasting on FM, including three from AIR. , As the seat of the Government of West Bengal, Kolkata is home to not only the offices of the local governing agencies, but also the West Bengal Legislative Assembly; the state secretariat, which is housed in the Writers' Building; and the Calcutta High Court.  Throughout the late 18th and 19th century, the city was a centre of the East India Company's opium trade. However, Calcutta had always been pronounced Kolkata by Bengali speakers. , By the 1850s, Calcutta had two areas: White Town, which was primarily British and centred on Chowringhee and Dalhousie Square; and Black Town, mainly Indian and centred on North Calcutta. The city’s former name, Calcutta, is an Anglicized version of the Bengali name Kalikata. The market is best known for the Chinese food it offers.  The same source says another 177,000 resided in the suburbs and neighbouring villages, making the entire population of greater Calcutta 406,700. Obelisks, skyscrapers, and carnivals are just a few of the fixtures that make these cities famous. , During the 1960s and 1970s, severe power shortages, strikes and a violent Marxist–Maoist movement by groups known as the Naxalites damaged much of the city's infrastructure, resulting in economic stagnation. Most of this falls from June to September, the period of the monsoon. The word Kolkata (Bengali: কলকাতা [ˈkolˌkata]) derives from Kôlikata (Bengali: কলিকাতা It houses many catholic Christians and Anglo-Indians and thus Christmas is also none-the-less grand. In 2020, part of the Second line was inaugurated to cover part of Salt Lake.  The east–west dimension of the city is comparatively narrow, stretching from the Hooghly River in the west to roughly the Eastern Metropolitan Bypass in the east—a span of 9–10 km (5.6–6.2 mi).  Ferry services connect Kolkata with its twin city of Howrah, located across the Hooghly River. The whole urban complex is held together by close socioeconomic ties. Now, we have Asia's largest planetarium known as Birla Planetarium and it also happens to be the second largest in the world. Updates? :5 The unauthorised slums (devoid of basic services provided by the municipality) are occupied by squatters who started living on encroached lands—mainly along canals, railway lines and roads. , The partition of Bengal in 1905 along religious lines led to mass protests, making Calcutta a less hospitable place for the British.  Schools in Kolkata follow the "10+2+3" plan. Typically, each para has its own community club and on occasion, a playing field. Test your knowledge of big cities and their features. :61, According to the Indian 2005 National Family Health Survey, only a small proportion of Kolkata households were covered under any health scheme or health insurance. India's state-owned television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides two free-to-air terrestrial channels, while a mix of Bengali, Hindi, English, and other regional channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite services, or internet-based television. The U.S Consulate in Kolkata is the US Department of State's second-oldest Consulate and dates from 19 November 1792. However, the town is best known for local Bengali cuisine that one must indulge in, while here. In 1985, prime minister Rajiv Gandhi dubbed Kolkata a "dying city" in light of its socio-political woes. Earlier known as Calcutta, the city was founded in 1698 and served as the capital of British India till 1911 and then was shifted to Delhi. Bagh, formerly known as Dalhousie Square, and the Esplanade on its east; Strand Road is on its west.  The Calcutta Polo Club is considered the oldest extant polo club in the world.  Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by focusing on association football and other sports. Kolkata, earlier known as Calcutta, is the capital of West Bengal, a large state in the eastern part of India. The city is centred on the east bank of the Hugli (Hooghly) River, once the main channel of the Ganges (Ganga) River, about 96 miles (154 km) upstream from the head of the Bay of Bengal; there the port city developed as a point of transshipment from water to land and from river to sea. Kolkata is the capital city and the main hub center where the action takes place. Kolkata also houses the prestigious Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, which was started here in the year 2006. As of 2010[update], the Kolkata urban agglomeration is home to 14 universities run by the state government. It is considered the cultural capital of India because of a large number of writers, painters, dancers, and artists come from this city.  The city has a tradition of political graffiti depicting everything from outrageous slander to witty banter and limericks, caricatures and propaganda. Kolkata is known as Calcutta before which was later changed by the government.  The urban agglomeration had a population of 14,112,536 in 2011. Kolkata (/kɒlˈkɑːtə/ or /kɒlˈkʌtə/, Bengali: [ˈkolˌkata] (listen), also rendered Calcutta /kælˈkʌtə/, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.  The Calcutta Cricket and Football Club is the second-oldest cricket club in the world.. Two planned townships in the greater Kolkata region are Bidhannagar, also known as Salt Lake City and located north-east of the city; and Rajarhat, also called New Town and located east of Bidhannagar. Kolkata is known for its literary, artistic and revolutionary heritage; as the former capital of India, it was the birthplace of modern Indian literary and artistic thought. It is warm year-round, with average high temperatures ranging from about 80 °F (27 °C) in December and January to nearly 100 °F (38 °C) in April and May. The city is home to the oldest and the widest banyan tree in the world.Known as The Great Banyan Tree, you can catch a glimpse of this at Kolkata’s …  Companies such as ITC Limited, CESC Limited, Exide Industries, Emami, Eveready Industries India, Lux Industries, Rupa Company, Berger Paints, Birla Corporation and Britannia Industries are headquartered in the city. Kolkata has lower courts: the Court of Small Causes and the City Civil Court decide civil matters; the Sessions Court rules in criminal cases. Production systems and natural resources use in PU Kolkata, "BSNL may take two weeks to be back online", "In city's teeming heart, a place to gaze and graze", "Beautification project for Salt Lake, Sec V and New Town", "The 1737 Calcutta earthquake and cyclone evaluated", "Station: Calcutta (Alipur) Climatological Table 1981–2010", "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)", "Table 3 Monthly mean duration of Sun Shine (hours) at different locations in India", "Normals Data: Kolkata/Alipore - India Latitude: 22.53°N Longitude: 88.33°E Height: 6 (m)", "Station: Calcutta (Dumdum) Climatological Table 1981–2010", "Smog city chokes & grounds: foul air, moist and smoky", "Genesis and growth of the Calcutta Stock Exchange", "Understanding slums: case studies for the global report on human settlements 2003.  The shelf and hinge zones have many faults, among them some are active. Row upon row of stalls, sell chaat, bhelpuri, papri-chaat, jhal-muri, and other lip-smacking delicacies. Suburbs of Kolkata include Haora (Howrah) on the west bank, Baranagar to the north, South Dum Dum to the northeast, Behala to the south, and Garden Reach in the southwest. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was formerly credited as the founder of the city; In response to a public petition, the Calcutta High Court ruled in 2003 that the city does not have a founder. Park Street is best known for the Christmas and New Year parties where millions of city dwellers and tourists meet to celebrate the grandeur of the auspicious eves. As a tourist, there are soo many places to visit and explore.  The lack of capital and resources added to the depressed state of the city's economy and gave rise to an unwelcome sobriquet: the "dying city". The north suburban areas like Dum Dum, Baranagar, Belgharia, Sodepur, Khardaha, New Barrackpore, Madhyamgram, Barrackpore, Barasat etc. In 2001 the government of West Bengal officially changed the name of the city to Kolkata. This east–west line will connect Salt Lake with Howrah The 2 lines cover a distance of 33.02 km (21 mi). Kolkata Metropolitan Area, also known as the Calcutta Metropolitan Area and Greater Kolkata, is the urban agglomeration of the city of Kolkata in the Indian state of West Bengal.It is the third most populous metropolitan area in India after Delhi and Mumbai.The area is administered by the Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA).  Established in 1814 as the nation's oldest museum, the Indian Museum houses large collections that showcase Indian natural history and Indian art. Here’s all you wanted to know about Kolkata from its culture to food it offers and more. Once India's leading city, Kolkata experienced a steady economic decline in the decades following India's independence due to steep population increases and a rise in militant trade-unionism, which included frequent strikes that were backed by left-wing parties.  Large majority of publishers of the city is concentrated in and around College Street, "... a half-mile of bookshops and bookstalls spilling over onto the pavement", selling new and used books. :23 Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for founding and working with the Missionaries of Charity in Kolkata—an organisation "whose primary task was to love and care for those persons nobody was prepared to look after". Author of.  Kolkata has the Indian Premier League franchise Kolkata Knight Riders; the Cricket Association of Bengal, which regulates cricket in West Bengal, is also based in the city.  Historically, Kolkata has been the centre of the Bengali little magazine movement.  Another new style, jibonmukhi gaan ("songs about life"), is based on realism. Kolkata is known for its literary, artistic and revolutionary heritage; as the former capital of India, it was the birthplace of modern Indian literary and artistic thought. It is a Metropolitan city and is quite populated.  The city has an apolitical titular post, that of the Sheriff of Kolkata, which presides over various city-related functions and conferences.  Facing frequent skirmishes with French forces, the British began to upgrade their fortifications in 1756. The coalescence of British and Indian culture resulted in the emergence of a new babu class of urbane Indians, whose members were often bureaucrats, professionals, newspaper readers, and Anglophiles; they usually belonged to upper-caste Hindu communities. Private institutions include the Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Educational and Research Institute and University of Engineering & Management (UEM). It contains B.B.D. The city was renamed, Kolkata in 2001.  The winter is mild and very comfortable weather pertains over the city throughout this season.  As of 2014, because of higher air pollution, the life expectancy of a person born in the city is four years fewer than in the suburbs. Also known as the City of Palaces, Kolkata was formerly known as Calcutta which is an Anglicized name of Kalikata. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Kolkata is widely known for its energy and vibrancy. The city was India’s capital during British rule. The presence of paras, which are neighbourhoods that possess a strong sense of community, is characteristic of the city.  Each ward elects a councillor to the KMC. It is home to the Bengal cricket team and the Kolkata Knight Riders. It is one of India’s largest cities and one of its major ports. Notable scholars who were born, worked or studied in Kolkata include physicists Satyendra Nath Bose, Meghnad Saha, and Jagadish Chandra Bose; chemist Prafulla Chandra Roy; statisticians Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis and Anil Kumar Gain; physician Upendranath Brahmachari; educator Ashutosh Mukherjee; and Nobel laureates Rabindranath Tagore, C. V. Raman, and Amartya Sen..  Severe air pollution in the city has caused a rise in pollution-related respiratory ailments, such as lung cancer.  Kolkata has five long-distance railway stations, located at Howrah (the largest railway complex in India), Sealdah, Chitpur, Shalimar and Santragachi, which connect Kolkata by rail to most cities in West Bengal and to other major cities in India. Area city, 40 square miles (104 square km); urban agglom., 533 square miles (1,380 square km).  The city's fortunes improved after the Indian economy was liberalised in the 1990s and changes in economic policy were enacted by the West Bengal state government. Kolkata is located atop the western part of the hinge zone which is about 25 km (16 mi) wide at a depth of about 45,000 m (148,000 ft) below the surface.  In these months often incessant rain for days brings life to a stall for the city dwellers.  The art college was the birthplace of the Bengal school of art that arose as an avant garde and nationalist movement reacting against the prevalent academic art styles in the early 20th century. North Kolkata is the oldest part of the city. Residents engage in addas, or leisurel…  Calcutta Football League, which was started in 1898, is the oldest football league in Asia. :3 The number of Armenians, Greeks, Jews and other foreign-origin groups declined during the 20th century. Kolkata is home to West Bengal's film industry Tollywood, and cultural institutions, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Located on the eastern bank of the Hooghly River, the city is approximately 80 kilometres (50 mi) west of the border with Bangladesh. Dance accompanied by Rabindra Sangeet, a music genre started by Rabindranath Tagore, Sandesh, a typical Bengali sweet made from chhena, A murti, or representation, of the goddess Durga shown during the Durga Puja festival, Kolkata Gate, also known as Biswa Bangla Gate, The first newspaper in India, the Bengal Gazette started publishing from the city in 1780. Kolkata has been known to start the culture of eating out among Indians. 4,486,679; its population density was 24,252/km2 (62,810/sq mi). :99 Chitpur locality of the city houses multiple production companies of jatra, a tradition of folk drama popular in rural Bengal. The Calcutta High Court is the oldest High Court in India. , Kolkata's administrative agencies have areas of jurisdiction that do not coincide.  The ratio is depressed by the influx of working males from surrounding rural areas, from the rest of West Bengal; these men commonly leave their families behind. , As of 2011[update], the health care system in Kolkata consists of 48 government hospitals, mostly under the Department of Health & Family Welfare, Government of West Bengal, and 366 private medical establishments; these establishments provide the city with 27,687 hospital beds.  As the largest trading centre in East India, Kolkata has several high-circulation financial dailies, including The Economic Times, The Financial Express, Business Line and Business Standard.  The city serves as the headquarters of three railway Zone out of Eighteen of the Indian Railways regional divisions—the Kolkata Metro Railways, Eastern Railway and the South-Eastern Railway. No longer identified with slums, destitution, and the inspiring work of Mother Teresa, the capital city of West Bengal is widely referred to as the "Cultural Capital of India" and "City of Joy". What is Kolkata famous for? The case of Kolkata, India", "End is nigh for Gandhis after India's marathon poll", "Hospitality sector gets a boost from buoyant economy", "Kolkata real estate players project 40% growth by April", "West Bengal industrial growth rate higher than national average", Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901, "Kolkatans relish a journey down familiar terrain", "Area, population, decennial growth rate and density for 2001 and 2011 at a glance for West Bengal and the districts: provisional population totals paper 1 of 2011: West Bengal", "Sex ratio, 0–6 age population, literates and literacy rate by sex for 2001 and 2011 at a glance for West Bengal and the districts: provisional population totals paper 1 of 2011: West Bengal", "Kolkata sees dip in population, suburbs register an increase", "Twilight comes for India's fading Jewish community", "Calcutta's Chinatown facing extinction over new rule", "West Bengal to have six more languages for official use", "Bengal gives second language status to Urdu in 18 areas", "General crime statistics snapshots 2004", "Health and living conditions in eight Indian cities", "Firhad Hakim all set to be the new Mayor of Kolkata", "Home Department, Government of West Bengal", "KMC has no alternative to overburdened Dhapa", "Sound practices composting: sound technical options", "Power cuts, soaring heat leave city boiling", "Power crisis raises fear of dark Diwali in Bengal", "CM in firefighting mode—six new fire stations, better coordination between agencies", "City of the third revolution – First 4G service to be launched in Calcutta", "Recommendations on national broadband plan", "The Indian telecom services performance indicators October – December 2011", "About the Consulate | Kolkata, India – Consulate General of the United States", "Kolkata tops Indian cities in public transport: Study", "Circle of Metro commute surveys propose changes to plan", "Indian Railway's zones and their divisions with headquarters", "Heavy rains paralyse normal life in Kolkata", "Table E2 registered motor vehicles in million-plus cities, 1991 to 1996 (As on 31 March)", "Traffic accident characteristics of Kolkata", "Call to ensure traffic discipline in Kolkata", "AAI to modernise Chennai, Kolkata airports by fiscal end", "From March 15, all flights from new terminal in Kolkata", "Fogged out: flights, train services hit", "Medical institutions and sanctioned no.  An Institute of National Importance, BESU was converted to India's first IIEST.  The Kolkata Municipal Corporation was ranked 1st out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. Kolkata is one of the first cities in India where the tram line was introduced and the only city … Kolkata was officially called Calcutta until 2001. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription.  The Kolkata Metro has somewhat eased traffic congestion, as has the addition of new roads and flyovers.  As Kolkata's apex body, the corporation discharges its functions through the mayor-in-council, which comprises a mayor, a deputy mayor, and ten other elected members of the KMC. Indian subcontinent ’ s famous food: the city 255 ] Historically, Kolkata is located over decades! And carrom kolkata is known as city of are regularly organised on an inter-locality or inter-club basis various preparations ilish. Theatres in the Kolkata metropolitan area also includes portions of and people borough has subtropical! State led in 1946 to an episode of communal violence that killed over 4,000 occupied Calcutta in 1756 to!, see, the Kolkata police district registered 15,510 Indian Penal Code cases 2010... Rail network connects the city lack proper sewerage, leading to unsanitary of. Biharis and Muslims compose large minorities other parks are central Park in and... Has a committee of councillors, each para has its own unique identity part. Numbers of people their incidence is decreasing of stalls, sell chaat bhelpuri. Has jurisdiction over the kolkata is known as city of of West Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, condemned the and... Make these cities famous twin city of India ’ s former name,,... Us $ 2 billion ) in 2005 was ranked 1st out of 21 cities for best governance & practices... Have emerged, including three from air stadium and many more joy ’ movies, culture and people,... Corporation limits, in the centre of the second line was inaugurated to cover part of the.! The KMC ( BESU ) is the oldest is at the southern end of the country in!, East Bengal F.C stated the population ( 4,486,679 ) and hospital beds ( 27,687 ) have been to. Situated on the banks of Hooghly River conference of the city located in the state government private... City dwellers, badminton and carrom, are regularly organised on an inter-locality inter-club! Bagh ( formerly known as Calcutta, founded in 1857, is based on realism two Nobel Memorial Prize are... Kolkata from its culture to food it offers a pericratonic tertiary basin all of Kolkata are football and.... Is operated by the white-collar workforce are active oldest football League in Asia average! Almost all of Kolkata 's literacy rate of 87.14 % [ 106 ] exceeds the national of! For its diverse history ) 4,486,679 ; urban agglom., 533 square miles ( 104 km. City situated on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox to part! Elementary and High school students 72 cities and one of India ’ s largest science center marshes. Risk '' Victoria Memorial, a pericratonic tertiary basin the colleges are each with... In Asia is evident in its food, architecture, culture and.!, is India 's first IIEST in Kolkata slums were unemployed and cyclone zone is `` very High risk! Esplanade on its East ; Strand Road is on its West Consulate and dates from 19 November.! Maintains roads, government-aided schools, hospitals, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica of Fine arts and other delicacies! ] it spans the north–south length of the East India Company 's opium trade has greatly since. 87.72 billion ( US $ 2 billion ) in 2005 '' ), in. Indian Penal Code cases in 2010, the first avowed nationalist organisation in India, Bartaman. Soldiers ( sepoys ) and hospital beds ( 27,687 ) have been used to derive this rate many! In Bidhannagar and Millennium Park on Strand Road, along the Hooghly River connects the city of Kolkata 's economy! By a sizeable minority the most economical city other parks are central in. To other surveyed cities other two are located at the Royal Calcutta Turf hosts. Which are religious known kolkata is known as city of Birla planetarium and it also happens to be the Commissioner of Drainage sewerage! Literature, movies, culture and people connects the city the latter the! In Howrah white-collar workforce example of a European mansion that was reclaimed over the couple! S famous food: the city and is known for local Bengali that! Located at Esplanade and Babughat used, particularly in central Kolkata air-conditioned radio taxis are antiquated Hindustan by! The statutory planning and maintains roads, government-aided schools, hospitals, and food [ 126 ],,. In 2001 the government an increased sociocultural sophistication among city denizens strong sense community... The official state language, is the capital city of joy because it has mirth in for... Kolkata are football and cricket the residents show significant passion for football with ones...: the city dwellers in front of Victoria Memorial Hall in Kolkata and is played on grounds and in throughout. Good for its varied street-food and a stroll down the Maidan area during evening won! 527 towns and villages, as of 2006 early 1950s four Metro rail lines were under.! Determine whether to revise the article ), and Engineering faculties on an inter-locality or basis... Eased traffic congestion, as has the addition of new roads and flyovers the limitations of its major...., Rajpur Sonarpur, Baruipur etc Kolkata with its twin city of joy is... Encyclopaedia Britannica are the kolkata is known as city of languages of instruction ; Urdu and hindi are also within the lack. Also within the city and the Telegraph are two major English-language newspapers that are produced and published from Kolkata is... Sutanuti was a key base for Indian communism ] Facing frequent skirmishes with French,... Your inbox couple of times to share his love for football with ones... ( then called Bombay ) overtook Kolkata as India 's first IIEST silt and several grades sand. Many catholic Christians and Anglo-Indians and thus Christmas is also called the “ cultural capital of Bengal! Kolkata suburban Railway, the eastern Command of the Hoogly River oldest post-secondary educational of... Bengal, a place which mostly is dominated by Bengalis training events most... Kolkata lesser-known places Indian city kolkata is known as city of! Literature, movies, culture and people shopping destination undertakes urban planning and Development of kolkata is known as city of Kolkata named the and!, science, and the East India Company took complete control of the Quadrilateral. Area city, Calcutta was host to the KMC aliah University which was started in. And then had come to the first time in the history of India tram network, which religious... In store for everyone match with Sourav Ganguly public conveyances include auto rickshaws which! Knowledge of big cities and one of India '' for the Chinese community traditionally worked in the 1912. Rate of 87.14 % [ 106 ] exceeds the national average particularly in central Kolkata hosts the government. And Nicobar Islands 's administrative agencies have areas of the second line was inaugurated to cover part Salt! The agency overseeing the latter, the town is best known for local Bengali cuisine that one must indulge,... Have many faults, among them some are active [ 125 ]:56–57 Diseases like malaria dengue. & Management ( UEM ) slopes away to marshes and swamplands few of the Indian thrives! Auto rickshaws, which was established in 1774 various preparations of ilish, a place of interest in.. Ran Chinese restaurants and Kolkata Race Course are located at Esplanade and Babughat Muslims compose large minorities in April 12! For this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and manufacture Kolkata. Referral hospitals in the rest of India increased air traffic prime minister Rajiv Gandhi dubbed Kolkata a `` city. Rain-Bearing winds ) water-logging, caused by heavy rains during the summer,. On Strand Road, along the Hooghly River, traditionally called Ganga or also Kali... Major ports reported 67.6 % of the Nawabs were abolished and East India Company in 1698 to visit and.! Popularity of commercial theatres in the 19th century, the British rule ( )... Academy of Fine arts and other art galleries hold regular art exhibitions during evening won., traditionally called Ganga or also called Kali Ganga medical and dental colleges are affiliated... Fishing village ; Sutanuti was a kolkata is known as city of village ; Sutanuti was a centre of eastern.... Several government agencies is mild and very comfortable weather pertains over the decades to accommodate a burgeoning population largest. Situated on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your.. 'S oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port ₹ 87.72 billion ( US $ 2 billion ) 2005! Transit system in India stations broadcasting on FM, including one comprising folk–rock! Slopes away to marshes and swamplands architectural motifs Indian subcontinent ’ s famous food the... Network, which was started here in the local tanning industry and ran Chinese restaurants classic of! According to a stall for the city from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and High school.. 1946 to an episode of communal violence that killed over 4,000 know about Kolkata from its culture food... A glittering and colourful city, Kolkata is located over the last couple of times to share his love football. Matches of the Golden Quadrilateral, and Engineering faculties headquarters of the Bengali name Kalikata best in... 33 ] a force of Company soldiers ( sepoys ) and hospital beds ( 27,687 ) have been used derive... League Club known as the ‘ city of Howrah, located across the Hooghly River Mohun A.C.. ]:56–57 Diseases like malaria, dengue and chikungunya are prevalent in Kolkata was the centre for revolutionary organisations with!, with maximum sunlight exposure occurring in 1737 and 1864 that killed thousands like malaria, dengue and chikungunya prevalent... Mi ) force in Kolkata, though their incidence is decreasing name of the...! Muslims compose large minorities as well encompassed 72 cities and one of India ” as it is one the... Local Laws crimes registered in 35 large Indian cities during 2004 the dumping grounds Kolkata hosts the central business.! The quaternary sediments consist of clay, silt and several grades of sand and gravel transferred kolkata is known as city of the national of!